• Data on inpatient use is obtained from the volume of ward stock issued combined with individual patient issues.
  • Information on antimicrobial use is generally available from hospital pharmacy information systems.
  • It may be reported monthly, quarterly or annually, preferably as DDDs.
  • Ward stock use is not generally linked to individual prescribers, so the data are purely measures of the volume of medicines prescribed in a given time.
  • These data can be reported as whole-of-hospital data or broken down into individual ward or division information.
  • Specific antimicrobials or antimicrobial groups can be targeted or total antimicrobial consumption measured.
  • Although expenditure data have severe limitations, since costs are affected by purchase contracts, formulary changes and variations in ordering patterns, they can be helpful to identify where money is being spent and to track any savings from stewardship activities.
  • Since much of the consumption data cannot be linked to individual patients, and given that many agents are used for a narrow band of indications, large fluctuations can appear in small ward populations.

- Antimicrobial Stewardship in Australian Hospitals(2011)

Units of Measurement